Jump Start Solution: Generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL

Last reviewed 2024-03-28 UTC

This guide helps you understand and deploy the Generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL solution. This solution is based on the Infrastructure for a RAG-capable generative AI application, but designed to help you get started and learn how to use RAG at a lower cost.

This solution demonstrates how you can use retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) to create a chat application. Your users can use the app to ask questions and get responses that are based on the information that's stored as vectors.

This document is intended for data scientists and application developers who have some background in application development and interacting with an LLM, such as Gemini. Experience with Terraform is helpful.

Objectives

This solution guide helps you do the following:

  • Deploy a three-tier app that uses RAG as a way to provide input to an LLM. The app has a frontend service and a backend service (both built using Python), and uses a managed database.
  • Learn how to use an LLM with RAG and unstructured text.

Architecture

The following diagram shows the architecture of the solution:

Architecture of the infrastructure required for the generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL solution.

The following sections describe the request flow and the Google Cloud resources that are shown in the diagram.

Request flow

The following is the request processing flow of this solution. The steps in the flow are numbered as shown in the preceding architecture diagram.

  1. Data is uploaded to a Cloud Storage bucket.
  2. Data is loaded to a PostgreSQL database in Cloud SQL.
  3. Embeddings of text fields are created by using Vertex AI and stored as vectors.
  4. You open the application in a browser.
  5. The frontend service communicates with the backend service for a generative AI call.
  6. The backend service converts the request to an embedding and searches existing embeddings.
  7. Natural language results from the embeddings search, along with the original prompt, are sent to Vertex AI to create a response.

Products used

The solution uses the following Google Cloud products:

  • Vertex AI: A machine learning (ML) platform that lets you train and deploy ML models and AI applications, and customize LLMs for use in applications.
  • Cloud SQL: A cloud-based service for MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQL Server databases that's fully managed on the Google Cloud infrastructure.
  • Cloud Run: A fully managed service that lets you build and deploy serverless containerized apps. Google Cloud handles scaling and other infrastructure tasks.
  • Cloud Storage: A low-cost, no-limit object store for diverse data types. Data can be accessed from within and outside Google Cloud, and it's replicated across locations for redundancy.

Cost

For an estimate of the cost of the Google Cloud resources that the generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL solution uses, see the precalculated estimate in the Google Cloud Pricing Calculator.

Use the estimate as a starting point to calculate the cost of your deployment. You can modify the estimate to reflect any configuration changes that you plan to make for the resources that are used in the solution.

The precalculated estimate is based on assumptions for certain factors, including the following:

  • The Google Cloud locations where the resources are deployed.
  • The amount of time that the resources are used.

  • The amount of data stored in Cloud Storage.

  • The CPU and memory allocation for Cloud Run.

  • The CPU, memory, and storage allocation for Cloud SQL.

  • The number of calls to Vertex AI model endpoints.

Before you begin

To deploy this solution, you first need a Google Cloud project and some IAM permissions.

Create or choose a Google Cloud project

When you deploy the solution, you choose the Google Cloud project where the resources are deployed. When you're deciding whether to use an existing project or to create a new project, consider the following factors:

  • If you create a project for the solution, then when you no longer need the deployment, you can delete the project and avoid continued billing. If you use an existing project, you must delete the deployment when you no longer need it.
  • Using a new project can help avoid conflicts with previously provisioned resources, such as resources that are used for production workloads.

If you want to deploy the solution in a new project, create the project before you begin the deployment.

To create a project, complete the following steps:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the project selector page.

    Go to project selector

  2. To begin creating a Google Cloud project, click Create project.

  3. Name your project. Make a note of your generated project ID.

  4. Edit the other fields as needed.

  5. To create the project, click Create.

Get the required IAM permissions

To start the deployment process, you need the Identity and Access Management (IAM) permissions that are listed in the following table. If you have the roles/owner basic role for the project in which you plan to deploy the solution, then you already have all the necessary permissions. If you don't have the roles/owner role, then ask your administrator to grant these permissions (or the roles that include these permissions) to you.

IAM permission required Predefined role that includes the required permissions

serviceusage.services.enable

Service Usage Admin
(roles/serviceusage.serviceUsageAdmin)

iam.serviceAccounts.create

Service Account Admin
(roles/iam.serviceAccountAdmin)

resourcemanager.projects.setIamPolicy

Project IAM Admin
(roles/resourcemanager.projectIamAdmin)
config.deployments.create
config.deployments.list
Cloud Infrastructure Manager Admin
(roles/config.admin)

Service account created for the solution

If you start the deployment process through the console, Google creates a service account to deploy the solution on your behalf (and to delete the deployment later if you choose). This service account is assigned certain IAM permissions temporarily; that is, the permissions are revoked automatically after the solution deployment and deletion operations are completed. Google recommends that after you delete the deployment, you delete the service account, as described later in this guide.

View the roles that are assigned to the service account

These roles are listed here in case an administrator of your Google Cloud project or organization needs this information.

  • roles/aiplatform.admin
  • roles/artifactregistry.admin
  • roles/cloudfunctions.admin
  • roles/cloudsql.admin
  • roles/compute.networkAdmin
  • roles/config.agent
  • roles/iam.serviceAccountAdmin
  • roles/iam.serviceAccountUser
  • roles/iam.serviceAccountTokenCreator
  • roles/logging.configWriter
  • roles/resourcemanager.projectIamAdmin
  • roles/run.admin
  • roles/servicenetworking.serviceAgent
  • roles/serviceusage.serviceUsageAdmin
  • roles/storage.admin
  • roles/workflows.admin
  • roles/vpcaccess.admin

Deploy the solution

To help you deploy this solution with minimal effort, a Terraform configuration is provided in GitHub. The Terraform configuration defines all the Google Cloud resources that are required for the solution.

You can deploy the solution by using one of the following methods:

  • Through the console: Use this method if you want to try the solution with the default configuration and see how it works. Cloud Build deploys all the resources that are required for the solution. When you no longer need the deployed solution, you can delete it through the console. Any resources that you create after you deploy the solution might need to be deleted separately.

    To use this deployment method, follow the instructions in Deploy through the console.

  • Using the Terraform CLI: Use this method if you want to customize the solution or if you want to automate the provisioning and management of the resources by using the infrastructure as code (IaC) approach. Download the Terraform configuration from GitHub, optionally customize the code as necessary, and then deploy the solution by using the Terraform CLI. After you deploy the solution, you can continue to use Terraform to manage the solution.

    To use this deployment method, follow the instructions in Deploy using the Terraform CLI.

Deploy through the console

Complete the following steps to deploy the preconfigured solution.

  1. In the Google Cloud Jump Start Solutions catalog, go to the Generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL solution.

    Go to the Generative AI RAG with Cloud SQL solution

  2. Review the information that's provided on the page, such as the estimated cost of the solution and the estimated deployment time.

  3. When you're ready to start deploying the solution, click Deploy.

    A step-by-step interactive guide is displayed.

  4. Complete the steps in the interactive guide.

    Note the name that you enter for the deployment. This name is required later when you delete the deployment.

    When you click Deploy, the Solution deployments page is displayed. The Status field on this page shows Deploying.

  5. Wait for the solution to be deployed.

    If the deployment fails, the Status field shows Failed. You can use the Cloud Build log to diagnose the errors. For more information, see Errors when deploying through the console.

    After the deployment is completed, the Status field changes to Deployed.

  6. To view the solution, return to the Solution deployments page in the console.

  7. To view the Google Cloud resources that are deployed and their configuration, take an interactive tour.

    Start the tour

    This task takes about 10 minutes to complete.

When you no longer need the solution, you can delete the deployment to avoid continued billing for the Google Cloud resources. For more information, see Delete the deployment.

Deploy using the Terraform CLI

This section describes how you can customize the solution or automate the provisioning and management of the solution by using the Terraform CLI. Solutions that you deploy by using the Terraform CLI are not displayed in the Solution deployments page in the Google Cloud console.

Set up the Terraform client

You can run Terraform either in Cloud Shell or on your local host. This guide describes how to run Terraform in Cloud Shell, which has Terraform preinstalled and configured to authenticate with Google Cloud.

The Terraform code for this solution is available in a GitHub repository.

  1. Clone the GitHub repository to Cloud Shell.

    Open in Cloud Shell

    A prompt is displayed to confirm downloading the GitHub repository to Cloud Shell.

  2. Click Confirm.

    Cloud Shell is launched in a separate browser tab, and the Terraform code is downloaded to the $HOME/cloudshell_open directory of your Cloud Shell environment.

  3. In Cloud Shell, check whether the current working directory is $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag. This is the directory that contains the Terraform configuration files for the solution. If you need to change to that directory, run the following command:

    cd $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag
    
  4. Initialize Terraform by running the following command:

    terraform init
    

    Wait until you see the following message:

    Terraform has been successfully initialized!
    

Configure the Terraform variables

The Terraform code that you downloaded includes variables that you can use to customize the deployment based on your requirements. For example, you can specify the Google Cloud project and the region where you want the solution to be deployed.

  1. Make sure that the current working directory is $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag. If it isn't, go to that directory.

  2. In the same directory, create a text file named terraform.tfvars.

  3. In the terraform.tfvars file, copy the following code snippet, and set values for the required variables.

    • Follow the instructions that are provided as comments in the code snippet.
    • This code snippet includes only the variables for which you must set values. The Terraform configuration includes other variables that have default values. To review all the variables and the default values, see the variables.tf file that's available in the $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag directory.
    • Make sure that each value that you set in the terraform.tfvars file matches the variable type as declared in the variables.tf file. For example, if the type that’s defined for a variable in the variables.tf file is bool, then you must specify true or false as the value of that variable in the terraform.tfvars file.
    # This is an example of the terraform.tfvars file.
    # The values in this file must match the variable types declared in variables.tf.
    # The values in this file override any defaults in variables.tf.
    
    # ID of the project in which you want to deploy the solution
    project_id = "PROJECT_ID"
    
    # The following variables have default values. You can set your own values or remove them to accept the defaults.
    
    # Google Cloud region where you want to deploy the solution.
    # Example: us-central1
    region = "REGION"
    
    # Whether or not to enable underlying apis in this solution.
    # Example: true
    enable_apis = "BOOL"
    
    # Whether or not to protect Cloud SQL resources from deletion when solution is modified or changed.
    # Example: false
    deletion_protection = "BOOL"
    
    # A map of key/value label pairs to assign to the resources.
    # Example: "team"="monitoring", "environment"="test"
    labels = {"KEY1"="VALUE1",..."KEYn"="VALUEn"}
    
    

    For information about the values that you can assign to the required variables, see the following:

    • project_id: Identifying projects.

    • The other variables have default values. You might change some of them (for example, disable_services_on_destroy and labels).

Validate and review the Terraform configuration

  1. Make sure that the current working directory is $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag. If it isn't, go to that directory.

  2. Verify that the Terraform configuration has no errors:

    terraform validate
    

    If the command returns any errors, make the required corrections in the configuration and then run the terraform validate command again. Repeat this step until the command returns the following message:

    Success! The configuration is valid.
    
  3. Review the resources that are defined in the configuration:

    terraform plan
    
  4. If you didn't create the terraform.tfvars file as described earlier, Terraform prompts you to enter values for the variables that don't have default values. Enter the required values.

    The output of the terraform plan command is a list of the resources that Terraform provisions when you apply the configuration.

    If you want to make any changes, edit the configuration and then run the terraform validate and terraform plan commands again.

Provision the resources

When no further changes are necessary in the Terraform configuration, deploy the resources.

  1. Make sure that the current working directory is $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag. If it isn't, go to that directory.

  2. Apply the Terraform configuration:

    terraform apply
    
  3. If you didn't create the terraform.tfvars file as described earlier, Terraform prompts you to enter values for the variables that don't have default values. Enter the required values.

    Terraform displays a list of the resources that will be created.

  4. When you're prompted to perform the actions, enter yes.

    Terraform displays messages showing the progress of the deployment.

    If the deployment can't be completed, Terraform displays the errors that caused the failure. Review the error messages and update the configuration to fix the errors. Then run the terraform apply command again. For help with troubleshooting Terraform errors, see Errors when deploying the solution using the Terraform CLI.

    After all the resources are created, Terraform displays the following message:

    Apply complete!
    
  5. To view the solution, return to the Solution deployments page in the console.

  6. To view the Google Cloud resources that are deployed and their configuration, take an interactive tour.

    Start the tour

    This task takes about 15 minutes to complete.

When you no longer need the solution, you can delete the deployment to avoid continued billing for the Google Cloud resources. For more information, see Delete the deployment.

Delete the deployment

When you no longer need the solution, to avoid continued billing for the resources that you created in this solution, delete all the resources.

Delete through the console

Use this procedure if you deployed the solution through the console.

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Solution deployments page.

    Go to Solution deployments

  2. Select the project that contains the deployment that you want to delete.

  3. Locate the deployment that you want to delete.

  4. Click Actions and then select Delete.

  5. Enter the name of the deployment and then click Confirm.

    The Status field shows Deleting.

    If the deletion fails, see the troubleshooting guidance in Error when deleting a deployment.

When you no longer need the Google Cloud project that you used for the solution, you can delete the project. For more information, see Optional: Delete the project.

Delete using the Terraform CLI

Use this procedure if you deployed the solution by using the Terraform CLI.

  1. In Cloud Shell, make sure that the current working directory is $HOME/cloudshell_open/terraform-genai-rag. If it isn't, go to that directory.

  2. Remove the resources that were provisioned by Terraform:

    terraform destroy
    

    Terraform displays a list of the resources that will be destroyed.

  3. When you're prompted to perform the actions, enter yes.

    Terraform displays messages showing the progress. After all the resources are deleted, Terraform displays the following message:

    Destroy complete!
    

    If the deletion fails, see the troubleshooting guidance in Error when deleting a deployment.

When you no longer need the Google Cloud project that you used for the solution, you can delete the project. For more information, see Optional: Delete the project.

Optional: Delete the project

If you deployed the solution in a new Google Cloud project, and if you no longer need the project, then delete it by completing the following steps:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to Manage resources

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete, and then click Delete.
  3. At the prompt, type the project ID, and then click Shut down.

If you decide to retain the project, then delete the service account that was created for this solution, as described in the next section.

Optional: Delete the service account

If you deleted the project that you used for the solution, then skip this section.

As mentioned earlier in this guide, when you deployed the solution, a service account was created on your behalf. The service account was assigned certain IAM permissions temporarily; that is, the permissions were revoked automatically after the solution deployment and deletion operations were completed, but the service account isn't deleted. Google recommends that you delete this service account.

  • If you deployed the solution through the Google Cloud console, go to the Solution deployments page. (If you're already on that page, refresh the browser.) A process is triggered in the background to delete the service account. No further action is necessary.

  • If you deployed the solution by using the Terraform CLI, complete the following steps:

    1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Service accounts page.