Spanner JDBC driver

This page describes the Spanner JDBC driver, which is recommended and authored by Google.

Google offers an open-source JDBC driver for Spanner. The open-source driver enables applications to access Spanner through the Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API.

This page answers frequently asked questions about the Spanner JDBC driver. To learn how to use the driver, see Connect JDBC to a GoogleSQL-dialect database.

Data Manipulation Language (DML) and Data Definition Language (DDL) support

The Spanner JDBC driver driver supports DML and DDL statements.

Parent-child and interleaved table relationships

Interleaved table relationships are mapped to foreign key relationships in JDBC. In Spanner, a record in the child table interleaved with a parent has its primary key dependent on the associated parent table record's primary key. Spanner defines the child table's parent primary key portion of its primary key as the foreign key, referencing the parent table's primary key. Thus you can navigate the interleaved table relationships using the foreign key metadata calls in DatabaseMetaData. You can read more details in About schemas.

Data types support

The Spanner JDBC driver doesn't support Spanner's STRUCT data type. All other types have appropriate mappings.

Index support

You can use indexes in SELECT queries using the appropriate query syntax. The open-source driver can also create and modify indexes as DDL statements. You can access information about particular indexes using the DatabaseMetaData.getIndexInfo() method.

Parameterized query support

This driver supports positional parameterization.

Connection pools

The Spanner JDBC driver handles pooling internally by keeping track of all connections that have been opened, as well as the connection properties that were used to open those connections. These pool connections are re-used, for example, when a new connection is required that has the same connection properties as an existing connection. A connection is closed automatically if it has not been used in the last 60 seconds.

If you want to provide your own pool, you can use any standard JDBC connection pool. Configure the pool to use the driver class and set a valid Spanner JDBC connection URL.


This driver's capabilities have limits defined by the underlying system. See the quotas and limits for Spanner.


Consult our support page for support options.

What's next

Learn how to Connect JDBC to a GoogleSQL-dialect database.