Method: projects.instances.databases.sessions.executeSql

Executes an SQL statement, returning all results in a single reply. This method cannot be used to return a result set larger than 10 MiB; if the query yields more data than that, the query fails with a FAILED_PRECONDITION error.

Operations inside read-write transactions might return ABORTED. If this occurs, the application should restart the transaction from the beginning. See Transaction for more details.

Larger result sets can be fetched in streaming fashion by calling sessions.executeStreamingSql instead.

HTTP request


The URL uses gRPC Transcoding syntax.

Path parameters



Required. The session in which the SQL query should be performed.

Authorization requires the following IAM permission on the specified resource session:


Request body

The request body contains data with the following structure:

JSON representation
  "transaction": {
    object (TransactionSelector)
  "sql": string,
  "params": {
  "paramTypes": {
    string: {
      object (Type)
  "resumeToken": string,
  "queryMode": enum (QueryMode),
  "partitionToken": string,
  "seqno": string,
  "queryOptions": {
    object (QueryOptions)
  "requestOptions": {
    object (RequestOptions)
  "directedReadOptions": {
    object (DirectedReadOptions)
  "dataBoostEnabled": boolean

object (TransactionSelector)

The transaction to use.

For queries, if none is provided, the default is a temporary read-only transaction with strong concurrency.

Standard DML statements require a read-write transaction. To protect against replays, single-use transactions are not supported. The caller must either supply an existing transaction ID or begin a new transaction.

Partitioned DML requires an existing Partitioned DML transaction ID.



Required. The SQL string.


object (Struct format)

Parameter names and values that bind to placeholders in the SQL string.

A parameter placeholder consists of the @ character followed by the parameter name (for example, @firstName). Parameter names must conform to the naming requirements of identifiers as specified at

Parameters can appear anywhere that a literal value is expected. The same parameter name can be used more than once, for example:

"WHERE id > @msg_id AND id < @msg_id + 100"

It is an error to execute a SQL statement with unbound parameters.


map (key: string, value: object (Type))

It is not always possible for Cloud Spanner to infer the right SQL type from a JSON value. For example, values of type BYTES and values of type STRING both appear in params as JSON strings.

In these cases, paramTypes can be used to specify the exact SQL type for some or all of the SQL statement parameters. See the definition of Type for more information about SQL types.


string (bytes format)

If this request is resuming a previously interrupted SQL statement execution, resumeToken should be copied from the last PartialResultSet yielded before the interruption. Doing this enables the new SQL statement execution to resume where the last one left off. The rest of the request parameters must exactly match the request that yielded this token.

A base64-encoded string.


enum (QueryMode)

Used to control the amount of debugging information returned in ResultSetStats. If partitionToken is set, queryMode can only be set to QueryMode.NORMAL.


string (bytes format)

If present, results will be restricted to the specified partition previously created using sessions.partitionQuery(). There must be an exact match for the values of fields common to this message and the PartitionQueryRequest message used to create this partitionToken.

A base64-encoded string.


string (int64 format)

A per-transaction sequence number used to identify this request. This field makes each request idempotent such that if the request is received multiple times, at most one will succeed.

The sequence number must be monotonically increasing within the transaction. If a request arrives for the first time with an out-of-order sequence number, the transaction may be aborted. Replays of previously handled requests will yield the same response as the first execution.

Required for DML statements. Ignored for queries.


object (QueryOptions)

Query optimizer configuration to use for the given query.


object (RequestOptions)

Common options for this request.


object (DirectedReadOptions)

Directed read options for this request.



If this is for a partitioned query and this field is set to true, the request is executed with Spanner Data Boost independent compute resources.

If the field is set to true but the request does not set partitionToken, the API returns an INVALID_ARGUMENT error.

Response body

If successful, the response body contains an instance of ResultSet.

Authorization scopes

Requires one of the following OAuth scopes:


For more information, see the Authentication Overview.