Background processing with Go

Many apps need to do background processing outside of the context of a web request. This tutorial creates a web app that lets users input text to translate, and then displays a list of previous translations. The translation is done in a background process to avoid blocking the user's request.

The following diagram illustrates the translation request process.

Diagram of architecture.

Here is the sequence of events for how the tutorial app works:

  1. Visit the web page to see a list of previous translations, stored in Firestore.
  2. Request a translation of text by entering an HTML form.
  3. The translation request is published to Pub/Sub.
  4. A Cloud Function subscribed to that Pub/Sub topic is triggered.
  5. The Cloud Function uses Cloud Translation to translate the text.
  6. The Cloud Function stores the result in Firestore.

This tutorial is intended for anyone who is interested in learning about background processing with Google Cloud. No prior experience is required with Pub/Sub, Firestore, App Engine, or Cloud Functions. However, to understand all of the code, some experience with Go, JavaScript, and HTML is helpful.


  • Understand and deploy a Cloud Function.
  • Understand and deploy an App Engine app.
  • Try the app.


In this document, you use the following billable components of Google Cloud:

To generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage, use the pricing calculator. New Google Cloud users might be eligible for a free trial.

When you finish the tasks that are described in this document, you can avoid continued billing by deleting the resources that you created. For more information, see Clean up.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

  4. Enable the Firestore, Cloud Functions, Pub/Sub, and Cloud Translation APIs.

    Enable the APIs

  5. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  6. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

  7. Enable the Firestore, Cloud Functions, Pub/Sub, and Cloud Translation APIs.

    Enable the APIs

  8. In the Google Cloud console, open the app in Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

    Cloud Shell provides command-line access to your cloud resources directly from the browser. Open Cloud Shell in your browser and click Proceed to download the sample code and change into the app directory.

  9. In Cloud Shell, configure the gcloud tool to use your Google Cloud project:
    # Configure gcloud for your project
    gcloud config set project YOUR_PROJECT_ID

Understanding the Cloud Function

  • The function starts by importing several dependencies, like Firestore and Translation. It also has some global variables and types.
    // Package background contains a Cloud Function to translate text.
    // The function listens to Pub/Sub, does the translations, and stores the
    // result in Firestore.
    package background
    import (
    // A Translation contains the original and translated text.
    type Translation struct {
    	Original         string `json:"original"`
    	Translated       string `json:"translated"`
    	OriginalLanguage string `json:"original_language"`
    	Language         string `json:"language"`
    // Clients reused between function invocations.
    var (
    	translateClient *translate.Client
    	firestoreClient *firestore.Client
    // PubSubMessage is the payload of a Pub/Sub event.
    // See
    type PubSubMessage struct {
    	Data []byte `json:"data"`
  • The global Firestore and Translation clients are initialized so they can be reused between function invocations. That way, you don't have to initialize new clients for every function invocation, which would slow down execution.
    // initializeClients creates translateClient and firestoreClient if they haven't
    // been created yet.
    func initializeClients() error {
    	projectID := os.Getenv("GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT")
    	if projectID == "" {
    		return fmt.Errorf("GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT must be set")
    	if translateClient == nil {
    		// Pre-declare err to avoid shadowing translateClient.
    		var err error
    		// Use context.Background() so the client can be reused.
    		translateClient, err = translate.NewClient(context.Background())
    		if err != nil {
    			return fmt.Errorf("translate.NewClient: %w", err)
    	if firestoreClient == nil {
    		// Pre-declare err to avoid shadowing firestoreClient.
    		var err error
    		// Use context.Background() so the client can be reused.
    		firestoreClient, err = firestore.NewClient(context.Background(), projectID)
    		if err != nil {
    			return fmt.Errorf("firestore.NewClient: %w", err)
    	return nil
  • The Translation API translates the string to the language you selected.
    // translateString translates text to lang, returning:
    // * the translated text,
    // * the automatically detected source language, and
    // * an error.
    func translateString(ctx context.Context, text string, lang string) (translated string, originalLang string, err error) {
    	l, err := language.Parse(lang)
    	if err != nil {
    		return "", "", fmt.Errorf("language.Parse: %w", err)
    	outs, err := translateClient.Translate(ctx, []string{text}, l, nil)
    	if err != nil {
    		return "", "", fmt.Errorf("Translate: %w", err)
    	if len(outs) < 1 {
    		return "", "", fmt.Errorf("Translate got %d translations, need at least 1", len(outs))
    	return outs[0].Text, outs[0].Source.String(), nil
  • The Cloud Function starts by initializing the Firestore and Pub/Sub clients. Then, it parses the Pub/Sub message to get the text to translate and the desired target language.

    Then, the app comes up with a unique name for the translation request to make sure it doesn't store any duplicate translations. Then, it translates in a Firestore transaction to make sure concurrent executions don't accidentally run the same translation twice.

    // Translate translates the given message and stores the result in Firestore.
    func Translate(ctx context.Context, m PubSubMessage) error {
    	t := Translation{}
    	if err := json.Unmarshal(m.Data, &t); err != nil {
    		return fmt.Errorf("json.Unmarshal: %w", err)
    	// Use a unique document name to prevent duplicate translations.
    	key := fmt.Sprintf("%s/%s", t.Language, t.Original)
    	sum := sha512.Sum512([]byte(key))
    	// Base64 encode the sum to make a nice string. The [:] converts the byte
    	// array to a byte slice.
    	docName := base64.StdEncoding.EncodeToString(sum[:])
    	// The document name cannot contain "/".
    	docName = strings.Replace(docName, "/", "-", -1)
    	ref := firestoreClient.Collection("translations").Doc(docName)
    	// Run in a transation to prevent concurrent duplicate translations.
    	err := firestoreClient.RunTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, tx *firestore.Transaction) error {
    		doc, err := tx.Get(ref)
    		if err != nil && status.Code(err) != codes.NotFound {
    			return fmt.Errorf("Get: %w", err)
    		// Do nothing if the document already exists.
    		if doc.Exists() {
    			return nil
    		translated, originalLang, err := translateString(ctx, t.Original, t.Language)
    		if err != nil {
    			return fmt.Errorf("translateString: %w", err)
    		t.Translated = translated
    		t.OriginalLanguage = originalLang
    		if err := tx.Set(ref, t); err != nil {
    			return fmt.Errorf("Set: %w", err)
    		return nil
    	if err != nil {
    		return fmt.Errorf("RunTransaction: %w", err)
    	return nil

Deploying the Cloud Function

  • In Cloud Shell, in the same directory as the translate.go file, deploy the Cloud Function with a Pub/Sub trigger:

    gcloud functions deploy Translate --runtime go111 \
    --trigger-topic=translate --set-env-vars GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT=YOUR_GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT

    where YOUR_GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT is your Google Cloud project ID.

Understanding the app

There are two main components for the web app:

  • A Go HTTP server to handle web requests. The server has the following two endpoints:
    • /: Lists all of the existing translations and shows a form users can submit to request new translations.
    • /request-translation: Form submissions are sent to this endpoint, which publishes the request to Pub/Sub to be translated asynchronously.
  • An HTML template that is filled in with the existing translations by the Go server.

The HTTP server

  • In the index directory, main.go starts by setting up the app and registering HTTP handlers:

    // Command index is an HTTP app that displays all previous translations
    // (stored in Firestore) and has a form to request new translations. On form
    // submission, the request is sent to Pub/Sub to be processed in the background.
    package main
    import (
    // topicName is the Pub/Sub topic to publish requests to. The Cloud Function to
    // process translation requests should be subscribed to this topic.
    const topicName = "translate"
    // An app holds the clients and parsed templates that can be reused between
    // requests.
    type app struct {
    	pubsubClient    *pubsub.Client
    	pubsubTopic     *pubsub.Topic
    	firestoreClient *firestore.Client
    	tmpl            *template.Template
    func main() {
    	projectID := os.Getenv("GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT")
    	if projectID == "" {
    		log.Fatalf("GOOGLE_CLOUD_PROJECT must be set")
    	a, err := newApp(projectID, "index")
    	if err != nil {
    		log.Fatalf("newApp: %v", err)
    	http.HandleFunc("/", a.index)
    	http.HandleFunc("/request-translation", a.requestTranslation)
    	port := os.Getenv("PORT")
    	if port == "" {
    		port = "8080"
    	log.Printf("Listening on localhost:%v", port)
    	if err := http.ListenAndServe(":"+port, nil); err != nil {
    // newApp creates a new app.
    func newApp(projectID, templateDir string) (*app, error) {
    	ctx := context.Background()
    	pubsubClient, err := pubsub.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
    	if err != nil {
    		return nil, fmt.Errorf("pubsub.NewClient: %w", err)
    	pubsubTopic := pubsubClient.Topic(topicName)
    	firestoreClient, err := firestore.NewClient(ctx, projectID)
    	if err != nil {
    		return nil, fmt.Errorf("firestore.NewClient: %w", err)
    	// Template referenced relative to the module/app root.
    	tmpl, err := template.ParseFiles(filepath.Join(templateDir, "index.html"))
    	if err != nil {
    		return nil, fmt.Errorf("template.New: %w", err)
    	return &app{
    		pubsubClient: pubsubClient,
    		pubsubTopic:  pubsubTopic,
    		firestoreClient: firestoreClient,
    		tmpl:            tmpl,
    	}, nil
  • The index handler (/) gets all existing translations from Firestore and fills an HTML template with the list:

    // index lists the current translations.
    func (a *app) index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    	docs, err := a.firestoreClient.Collection("translations").Documents(r.Context()).GetAll()
    	if err != nil {
    		log.Printf("GetAll: %v", err)
    		http.Error(w, fmt.Sprintf("Error getting translations: %v", err), http.StatusInternalServerError)
    	var translations []background.Translation
    	for _, d := range docs {
    		t := background.Translation{}
    		if err := d.DataTo(&t); err != nil {
    			log.Printf("DataTo: %v", err)
    			http.Error(w, "Error reading translations", http.StatusInternalServerError)
    		translations = append(translations, t)
    	if err := a.tmpl.Execute(w, translations); err != nil {
    		log.Printf("tmpl.Execute: %v", err)
    		http.Error(w, "Error writing response", http.StatusInternalServerError)
  • New translations are requested by submitting an HTML form. The request translation handler, registered at /request-translation, parses the form submission, validates the request, and publishes a message to Pub/Sub:

    // requestTranslation parses the request, validates it, and sends it to Pub/Sub.
    func (a *app) requestTranslation(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    	if err := r.ParseForm(); err != nil {
    		log.Printf("ParseForm: %v", err)
    		http.Error(w, "Bad request", http.StatusBadRequest)
    	v := r.PostFormValue("v")
    	if v == "" {
    		log.Printf("Empty value")
    		http.Error(w, "Empty value", http.StatusBadRequest)
    	acceptableLanguages := map[string]bool{
    		"de": true,
    		"en": true,
    		"es": true,
    		"fr": true,
    		"ja": true,
    		"sw": true,
    	lang := r.PostFormValue("lang")
    	if !acceptableLanguages[lang] {
    		log.Printf("Unsupported language: %v", lang)
    		http.Error(w, fmt.Sprintf("Unsupported language: %v", lang), http.StatusBadRequest)
    	log.Printf("Translation requested: %q -> %s", v, lang)
    	t := background.Translation{
    		Original: v,
    		Language: lang,
    	msg, err := json.Marshal(t)
    	if err != nil {
    		log.Printf("json.Marshal: %v", err)
    		http.Error(w, "Error requesting translation", http.StatusInternalServerError)
    	res := a.pubsubTopic.Publish(r.Context(), &pubsub.Message{Data: msg})
    	if _, err := res.Get(r.Context()); err != nil {
    		log.Printf("Publish.Get: %v", err)
    		http.Error(w, "Error requesting translation", http.StatusInternalServerError)

The HTML template

The HTML template is the basis for the HTML page shown to the user so they can see previous translations and request new ones. The template is filled in by the HTTP server with the list of existing translations.

  • The <head> element of the HTML template includes metadata, style sheets, and JavaScript for the page:
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="">
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="">
        <script defer src=""></script>
        <script src=""></script>
            $(document).ready(function() {
                $("#translate-form").submit(function(e) {
                    // Get value, make sure it's not empty.
                    if ($("#v").val() == "") {
                        type: "POST",
                        url: "/request-translation",
                        data: $(this).serialize(),
                        success: function(data) {
                            // Show snackbar.
                            var notification = document.querySelector('.mdl-js-snackbar');
                                message: 'Translation requested'
                        error: function(data) {
                            // Show snackbar.
                            console.log("Error requesting translation");
                            var notification = document.querySelector('.mdl-js-snackbar');
                                message: 'Translation request failed'
            .lang {
                width: 50px;
            .translate-form {
                display: inline;

    The page pulls in Material Design Lite (MDL) CSS and JavaScript assets. MDL lets you add a Material Design look and feel to your websites.

    The page uses JQuery to wait for the document to finish loading and set a form submission handler. Whenever the request translation form is submitted, the page does minimal form validation to check that the value isn't empty, and then sends an asynchronous request to the /request-translation endpoint.

    Finally, an MDL snackbar appears to indicate if the request was successful or if it encountered an error.

  • The HTML body of the page uses an MDL layout and several MDL components to display a list of translations and a form to request additional translations:
        <div class="mdl-layout mdl-js-layout mdl-layout--fixed-header">
            <header class="mdl-layout__header">
                <div class="mdl-layout__header-row">
                    <!-- Title -->
                    <span class="mdl-layout-title">Translate with Background Processing</span>
            <main class="mdl-layout__content">
                <div class="page-content">
                    <div class="mdl-grid">
                    <div class="mdl-cell mdl-cell--1-col"></div>
                        <div class="mdl-cell mdl-cell--3-col">
                            <form id="translate-form" class="translate-form">
                                <div class="mdl-textfield mdl-js-textfield mdl-textfield--floating-label">
                                    <input class="mdl-textfield__input" type="text" id="v" name="v">
                                    <label class="mdl-textfield__label" for="v">Text to translate...</label>
                                <select class="mdl-textfield__input lang" name="lang">
                                    <option value="de">de</option>
                                    <option value="en">en</option>
                                    <option value="es">es</option>
                                    <option value="fr">fr</option>
                                    <option value="ja">ja</option>
                                    <option value="sw">sw</option>
                                <button class="mdl-button mdl-js-button mdl-button--raised mdl-button--accent" type="submit"
                        <div class="mdl-cell mdl-cell--8-col">
                            <table class="mdl-data-table mdl-js-data-table mdl-shadow--2dp">
                                        <th class="mdl-data-table__cell--non-numeric"><strong>Original</strong></th>
                                        <th class="mdl-data-table__cell--non-numeric"><strong>Translation</strong></th>
                                    {{range .}}
                                        <td class="mdl-data-table__cell--non-numeric">
                                            <span class="mdl-chip mdl-color--primary">
                                                <span class="mdl-chip__text mdl-color-text--white">{{ .OriginalLanguage }} </span>
                                        {{ .Original }}
                                        <td class="mdl-data-table__cell--non-numeric">
                                            <span class="mdl-chip mdl-color--accent">
                                                <span class="mdl-chip__text mdl-color-text--white">{{ .Language }} </span>
                                            {{ .Translated }}
                            <button class="mdl-button mdl-js-button mdl-button--raised" type="button" onClick="window.location.reload();">
                <div aria-live="assertive" aria-atomic="true" aria-relevant="text" class="mdl-snackbar mdl-js-snackbar" id="snackbar">
                    <div class="mdl-snackbar__text mdl-color-text--black"></div>
                    <button type="button" class="mdl-snackbar__action"></button>

Building the app

  • Before trying to deploy the web app, build the app to make sure it compiles and all of your dependencies are working.
    go build -o start ./index

    The build was successful if nothing was printed and a start file was created.

Deploying the web app

You can use the App Engine standard environment to build and deploy an app that runs reliably under heavy load and with large amounts of data.

This tutorial uses the App Engine standard environment to deploy the HTTP frontend.

The app.yaml configures the App Engine app:

runtime: go111
main: index
  • From the same directory as the app.yaml file, deploy your app to the App Engine standard environment:
    gcloud app deploy

Testing the app

After you've deployed the Cloud Function and App Engine app, try requesting a translation.

  1. To view the app in your browser,enter the following URL:

    Replace the following:

    There is a page with an empty list of translations and a form to request new translations.

  2. In the Text to translate field, enter some text to translate, for example, Hello, World.
  3. Select a language from the drop-down list that you want to translate the text to.
  4. Click Submit.
  5. To refresh the page, click Refresh . There is a new row in the translation list. If you don't see a translation, wait a few more seconds and try again. If you still don't see a translation, see the next section about debugging the app.

Debugging the app

If you cannot connect to your App Engine app or don't see new translations, check the following:

  1. Check that the gcloud deploy commands successfully completed and didn't output any errors. If there were errors, fix them, and try deploying the Cloud Function and the App Engine app again.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Logs Viewer page.

    Go to Logs Viewer page
    1. In the Recently selected resources drop-down list, click GAE Application, and then click All module_id. You see a list of requests from when you visited your app. If you don't see a list of requests, confirm you selected All module_id from the drop-down list. If you see error messages printed to the Google Cloud console, check that your app's code matches the code in the section about understanding the app.
    2. In the Recently selected resources drop-down list, click Cloud Function, and then click All function name. You see a function listed for each requested translation. If not, check that the Cloud Function and App Engine app are using the same Pub/Sub topic:
      • In the background/index/main.go file, check that the topicName constant is "translate".
      • When you deploy the Cloud Function, be sure to include the --trigger-topic=translate flag.

Clean up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud account for the resources used in this tutorial, either delete the project that contains the resources, or keep the project and delete the individual resources.

Delete the Google Cloud project

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to Manage resources

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete, and then click Delete.
  3. In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.

Delete the App Engine instance

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Versions page for App Engine.

    Go to Versions

  2. Select the checkbox for the non-default app version that you want to delete.
  3. To delete the app version, click Delete.

Delete the Cloud Function

  • Delete the Cloud Function you created in this tutorial:
    gcloud functions delete Translate

What's next